The 12 minor prophets
The 12: Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum,
Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.
Called “the minor prophets” because the authors wrote brief
messages – unlike Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel (major
prophets). Their messages were as important as those written
by the major prophets.
The Minor Prophets cover roughly 300 years of history. (the 8
century through the 5
century BC)
The split of the Davidic Kingdom (930 bc) – Rehoboam
(Southern Kingdom = Judah and Benjamin - Nation of Judah)
and Jeroboam (Northern Kingdom = Israel-the other 10
Jeroboam II (793-753
bc) = II Kings 14:25 & 28
– The Nation of Israel
expanded its boarders
and most likely Syria
was a ‘sub-state’ of
Assyria defeated Syria
then eventually Assyria
started to decline
It was this time that Jonah
was sent to Nineveh
(around 780 bc)
Between 780 – 750 bc,
Amos and Hosea were
called to denounce/
rebuke social injustice and
idolatry – the nations were
economically prosperous
– but morally and
spiritually horribly failing in
the Northern Kingdom.
Around 745 bc, Emperor Tiglath-Pileser II became the Assyrian
King. He was a very strong ruler, Jeroboam II died (780ish), Israel
became unstable filled with turmoil. Part of Hosea’s message
addresses this.
722 bc – Israel (Northern Kingdom – 10 former states of David’s
kingdom) falls to the Assyrians and are completely assimilated
into Assyria.
As Hosea, Amos, and Micah prophesied – Israel was destroyed
by Assyria, the capital city of Israel (Samaria) was completely
destroyed, and a large number of Israelites were taken into
Before we get
lost in Biblical
Let’s look at
Written during King Jeroboam II (790 – 749 bc) – around 780
Jonah was from Gath-hepher – near Nazareth
2 Purposes: Mission to all nations & Messiah’s Resurrection:
1. God cares for the world not only for the Hebrew soul
2. Jesus identifies Jonah’s 3 days in the fish with His own 3 days in
the tomb – this validates Jonah’s authenticity
Chapter 1 – Jonah’s call & flight
Chapter 2 – Jonah’s prayer
Chapter 3 – Nineveh’s repentance
Chapter 4- God’s Compassion is Sure
Chapter 1 – Jonah’s call & flight
The Word of the Lord
came to Jonah, “Go to
He ran! Away!
In Joppa, boarded a ship
to Spain…opposite way
A great storm hit, Jonah
“ko”, they cast lots and it
was Jonah! Captain
asked, “who are you?”…
and “What have you
Jonah said, “I am a Hebrew and I worship the Lord, the
God of heaven, Who made the sea and land…throw
me into the sea – this is because of me…”
The captain and crew worked hard at throwing cargo
overboard…the storm became worse
They prayed they would not be at fault for Jonah’s
death and threw Jonah overboard
The Lord provided a huge fish that swallowed Jonah
and he stayed in the belly of the fish for 3 days and 3
Chapter 2 Jonah’s prayer (from the belly of the fish!)
“…But You, Lord my God, brought
my life up from the pit…my prayers
rose to you…those who cling to
worthless idols forfeit God’s love for
them…But I, with shouts of grateful
praise, will sacrifice to You…I will
say, ‘Salvation comes from the
And the Lord commanded the fish
and it vomited Jonah on dry
Chapter 3
Jonah Obeys
The Word of the Lord came to
Jonah a 2
Took him 3 days to walk thru
“In 40 days Nineveh will be
The Ninevites believed and
The King dressed in sackcloth,
repented, fasted and prayed.
Chapter 4 God’s Compassion is sure!
Jonah became very angry with God
“I told you! This is why I ran!”
”I knew You are a gracious and
compassionate God, slow to anger
and abounding in love, a God Who
relents from sending calamity…now
take my life!...”
The Lord said, “Is it right for you to be
God provided a gourd for shade to
comfort Jonah as Jonah watched
the city…he was happy…
*The next day, God
provided a worm to
eat the gourd
*The scorching sun
came up…so hot
Jonah felt faint
*”Is it right for you to be
so angry about the
gourd when you have
done nothing to grow
Jonah said, “YES!”
God said, “You are so concerned about
the gourd that came and died in a day’s
time – you didn’t even do anything to
make it grow…
Shouldn’t I have concern for the 120,000+
people who don’t even know their right
hand from their left hand?”
The 12 Minor Prophets and today’s
message from Jonah will…
Show us God’s incredible forgiveness – we do not
deserve nor can we earn…
God is committed to His promises
God is patient with the nonbeliever as well as with us
– the believers
Emphasize His mercy endures forever!